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CE 111 – Engineering Drawing: Introduction, course outline, Lines, Lettering, Dimensioning, Scales, Geometrical Construction, Projections, Isometric projection, Mid exam, Seminars, Final Examination.

MATH 101 – Calculus I: Functions, Range & Domains, Derivation, Curve Tracing, Limits, mid- semester examination, Area & Volume Integration, Fundamental theorem of Integration, Application of Integration.

PHYS 101 – General Physics: Physics and Measurement, Motion in One Dimensions, Vectors, Motion in Two Dimensions, The Laws of Motion, Circular Motion and Other Applications of Newton`s Law, Work and Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy, Linear Momentum and Collisions, Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis, Oscillatory Motion, Wave Motion, Sound Waves, The Nature of Light and the Laws of Geometric Optics, Laboratory includes some basic Physics experiments.

CE 112 – Introduction to Civil Engineering: Introduction to Construction industry, History of civil Engineering, Civil Engineering and its areas, Civil Engineering laboratories, Laws related to construction, Standards in Civil Engineering, Project Application and control, Construction materials, Construction management, Site visit, Hydraulic works, Geotechnical works, Job opportunities.

ELT 101 – Advanced English: The course reinforces academic writing skills. In this course students write different types of essays based on the ideas they are exposed to in the reading selections. The emphasis is on the writing process in which students go through many stages from brainstorming and outlining to producing a complete documented piece of writing.

KUR 105 – Kurdology I:  General introduction, The Kurds and their country Kurdistan, History, Kurdish society, Language, Folklore and literature.

CE 122 – Engineering Mechanics: Vector operations. Wedges. Frictional forces on screws and flat belts. Rolling resistance. Virtual work for a system of connected rigid bodies,Equilibrium of a particle, Freebody diagram, Moment of forces about a point and about an axis, Equivalent systems, Joints/Equilibrium of a rigid body in two and three dimensions, Joints/ Equilibrium of a rigid body in two and three dimensions, Trusses, Frames and machines, Dry friction, Moment of inertia.

IT 103 – INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: Introduction, Computer Hardware, Operating Systems, Computer Software, MS – Word, MS – Excel, MS – PowerPoint.

CHE 101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY: Classification of the materials, atomic structure, periodic table, molecular structure, bonding in solid materials, structure of crystalline solids, mechanical properties of the materials, phase diagrams, thermal processing of metal alloys, properties and use of ceramics, glasses and composites, material selection, and design.

CE 211 – Mechanics of Materials I: Introduction, course outline, Stress, introduction, normal stress, shearing stress, allowable stresses, factor of safety, Examples, discussions, Strain, Introduction, stress-strain diagram, Hooke’s law, deflection of axially loaded rods, Poisson’s ratio, generalized Hooke’s law, shearing stress and strain, Review examples, discussions, Torsion, Introduction, method of sections, torsion formula for circular members, angle of twist, Review examples, discussions, Axial force, Shear, and Bending Moment, Introduction, types of supports and loading, beams classification, method of sections, shear in beams, and axial force in beams, bending moment in beams, shear- axial force- and bending moment diagrams, Review examples, discussions I, Review examples, discussions II, Pure Bending of Beams, Introduction, Limitations and assumptions, flexure formula, Review examples, discussions, Shearing stress in beams, Introduction, Shear-bending moment relationship, shear flow, shearing stress formula, shear center.

CE 213 – Fluid Mechanics I: Introduction, characteristics and fluid properties units of measurements, Fluid in the case of static: the relationship between pressure and density and height, pressure gauge and absolute pressure, manometer, forces on the flat and convex surfaces and submerged applications, pressure gauge and absolute pressure, manometer, forces on the flat and convex surfaces and submerged applications, the movement of the liquid kinematic, the flow is steady and constant, the of uniform and non-uniform flow, the line of flow, the flow of a one-dimensional and two and three, velocity, acceleration, average velocity, discharge, applications, the basic laws, the equation of motion, energy equation, Euler equation, Bernoulli equation, the power line and the line hydraulic pumps, law of conservation of momentum and applications, Applications of law of conservation of momentum.

CE 217 – Differential Equation: Introduction to differential equations, First order differential equations(1st ODEs) / Separable equations, Homogeneous equations, Integration factors, Equations reducible to the linear form (Bernoulli\’s equations), Exact equations, Second ODEs / Special types of second ODEs, Linear equations with constant coefficients, Linear, 2nd OHEs with constant coefficients, Partial derivative . Fourier series, Functions of any period p=2L, Half-Range expansions, Fourier integral, Partial Differential Equations.

CE 215 – Surveying I: Introduction, course outline, the general concept of survey: the survey types, principles of survey and its uses, Use a measuring tape, Adjustment of the measurements: errors and mistakes, the types of errors, precision and perfection, the principles of the theory of accumulation of errors, linear measurements: measurement tools, methods of measuring distance and accuracy of the tape, survey of details, Obstructions, errors of measurement tape, Leveling: types of Leveling, Leveling equipment, differential Leveling, longitudinal sections, the mistakes in the Leveling process.

CE 219 – Building Material & Concrete Technology: Introduction, Course Outline, Manufacturing of Portland cement, Chemical composition, hydration of cement, Types of cement and testing of cement, Aggregate and testing of aggregates, Fresh properties of concrete, Hardened Properties of concrete, Mix Design.

CE 212 – Mechanics of Materials II: Introduction, course outline, Compound stresses, Introduction, Superposition, Force applied parallel to member’s axis, Unsymmetrical bending, Superposition of shearing stresses, Analysis of Plane Stress and Strain, Introduction, the basic problem, Equations of the transformation of plane stress, Principal stresses, maximum shearing stresses, Mohr’s circle of stress, Construction of Mohr’s circle of stress, Construction of Mohr’s circle of stress, Combined Stresses- Pressure Vessels- Failure Theories, Thin-walled pressure vessels, Failure theories, Design of Members by Strength Criteria, Introduction, design of axially loaded members, Design criteria for prismatic members, Shear and moment diagrams by summation, Shear and moment diagrams by summation, Deflection of Beams, Introduction, strain-curvature and moment-curvature relations, Differential equations of elastic beams, boundary conditions, Solution by direct integration, Solution by direct integration, Statically Indeterminate Problems Introduction, general approach, stresses caused by temperature, Analysis of indeterminate systems based on superposition, Columns Introduction, stability of equilibrium, Euler’s formula, Limitations, design of columns.

CE 214 – Fluid Mechanics II: Introduction to Flow of the real fluid, Laminar and turbulent flow, Boundary layers, Shear stress of laminar and turbulent flow, Velocity distribution and flow establishment, Correction factor of velocity and momentum heads, Flow through pipes, Flow through Smooth and rough pipes, Friction and minor losses, Compound pipes, Flow in open channels ,types of flow, Mannings and Chezy formulas, best section, Dimensional analysis.

CE 224-Geology for Civil Engineers: Structure of the earth, geological cycles, minerals and rocks. Magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Geologic structure and its importance in civil engineering. Geologic maps and cross-sections. Dams and reservoir geology. Geological concepts in landslides, hydrogeology and tunnels. Quarries and dimension stone. External processes on land and in the sea. Internal processes including deformation of rocks and earthquakes.

CE 218 – Engineering Mathematics: Introduction, Functions  of  several  variables, Limits  and  continuity  in  higher  dimension, Partial  derivatives  , Three  – dimensional  Laplace  equation, Two –  dimensional  Laplace  equation, One –dimensional  Wave  equation, The  chain  Rule  for  function  of  two  independent  variables, Gradient  vectors, Tangent  planes, Total  differential, High  and  low  points  on  the  surface.

CE 216 – Surveying II: Methods of calculation and Meaurements of area, Methods of calculation and Meaurements of area, calculation and Meaurements of volume, Types of polygons, methods of calculating trends and its adjustments, methods of calculating the coordinates and their adjustments , ribbing compass. methods of calculating the coordinates and their adjustments , ribbing compass. Topographic surveying, Angles and Trends: theodolite compass, methods of measuring angles and directions, mistakes, Introduction to the total station.

CE 220 – Building Construction: Introduction, course outline, Foundations, Masonry, Masonry wall construction, Concrete construction, Steel frame construction, Sitecast concrete framing systems, Interior Walls and Partitions, Finish Ceilings and Floors.

CE 311 – Structural Analysis I: Introduction, Stability of structures, Analysis of statically determinate frames (shear, moment and axial force diagrams), Compound trusses, Complex trusses, Influence lines for beams and frames, Influence lines for trusses, Maximum shear and moments due to a moving load, Cables and arches, Approximate analysis of statically determinate structures(frames and trusses).

CE 317 – Soil Mechanics I: Analysis and classification of soils, Clay minerals, Stress and strain behavior and relationship, stresses within a soil mass, Effective stress concept, Permeability and seepage, Compressibility and consolidation of soil, Shear strength of soil, Lateral earth pressure, Slope stability, Bearing capacity and settlement of foundations, The improvement of soil.

CE 313 – Reinforced Concrete I: Introduction, course outline, Loads, Serviceability and Safety of Structures, Design Basis, Design codes and specifications, Safety Provisions of the ACI Code, Fundamental Assumptions of RC Behavior, Properties of Concrete in Compression,  Properties of Concrete in Tension, Reinforcing Steel for Concrete, Grades and Strengths, Stress-strain Curves, Flexural Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Fundamental Assumptions, RC Beam Behavior, Analysis of Stresses and Strength in the Different Stages, Design of Tension-Reinforced Rectangular Beams, Rectangular Beams with Tension and Compression Reinforcement, Design Aids, Practical Considerations, T Beams. Analysis and Design Examples, Shear and diagonal tension, Introduction, Beams with Vertical Stirrups, Beams with Inclined Bars, RC beams without Shear Reinforcement, RC Beams with Web Reinforcement, ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design, Effect of axial forces on shear strength, Bond, anchorage and development length, introduction, Bond Strength and Development Length, ACI Code Provisions for Development Length in Tension, Anchorage by Hooks, Development Length in Compression, Bar Cutoff and Bend Points in Beams, Bar Splices, Group Project for Students, Approximate Analysis of Continuous Beams and One-Way Slabs, ACI Moment and Shear Coefficients, Integrated Beam Design.

CE 319 – Engineering Economy: Engineering Economy, General introduction and Background, objectives, references, The Economic Environment and Cost Concepts, Cost – Volume Relationships, Law of Supply and Demand, Introduction to Selection in Present Economy, Total Cost in Material Selection, Economy of location, Alternative Machine Speed, Materials with Limit Supply, Proficiency, Economy Selection of Beams, Production, Money-Time Relation, Simple and Compound Interest, Finding F when Given P, Finding P when Given F, Finding F when Given A, Finding A when Given F, Finding A when Given P, Summary. Deferred Annuities, Beginning of Period CF, Middle of Period, Gradient F/G, A/G, Changing Interest Rates, Basic Methods for making Economy Studies-five methods.PW, AW, CR, Future Worth,  and IRR, ERR, ERRR, The Payback Period.

CE 315 – Hydraulics I: Flow in pipes: basic principles, types of flow, basic equations, solving the problems of flow in the pipe using the equations and the outline of Stanton and method of trial and error, solving the problems of flow in the pipe using the direct solution method, pipe-related pumps and turbines, Flow through branched pipes, Flow through pipes in series and parallel, analysis and design of networks pipe using the Hardy Cross, Unsteady flow through pipes, Water hammer, Pumps: Types of pumps, the basic curves of pumps, pumps, respectively, and parallel systems, pumps and pipelines.

CE 330 – Construction Site Techniques: Resident Engineer, Supporting Documents, Construction Contract Management Practices, Forms, Organization, Project Team, Responsibilities, Resident Engineer’s Role, Authority of resident Engineer, Construction Phase Responsibilities, Schedule., Contractor’s Responsibilities, Resident Engineer’s Responsibilities, Correspondence, Preparing Correspondence, Correspondence Guidelines, Definitions, Document Control, Handling and Controlling Project Documentation, Incoming Documents (Correspondence Received), Internal Documents, Electronic Mail (E-Mail), Other Documents, Progress Payments , Bid Schedule and Schedule of Values, Payment , Processing a Progress Payment , Unit Price Work , Provisional Sum Work , Final and Balancing Change Order , Payment for Change Order Work , Retention , Final Payment , Work Stoppages, Contract Closeout , Beneficial Occupancy, Substantial Completion (Pre-Final) Inspection , Certificate of Substantial Completion for Beneficial Occupancy, Punch List , Certificate of Final Acceptance, Contract Closeout , Final Payment , Final Release of Retain age.

CE 320 – Structural Analysis II: Deflection of beams and frames by: Unit load method, Moment area method, Deflection of trusses, Deflection of composite structures, Analysis of indeterminate Beams.(force method), Analysis of indeterminate Frames (force method), Analysis of indeterminate Trusses, Analysis of indeterminate Beams (slope deflection method), Analysis of indeterminate Frames (Slope deflection method), Analysis of indeterminate Beams (Moment distribution method), Analysis of indeterminate Frames (Moment distribution method), Introduction to stiffness method.

CE 322 – Soil Mechanics II: Analysis and classification of soils, Clay minerals, Stress and strain behavior and relationship, stresses within a soil mass, Effective stress concept, Permeability and seepage, Compressibility and consolidation of soil, Shear strength of soil, Lateral earth pressure, Slope stability, Bearing capacity and settlement of foundations, The improvement of soil.

CE 326 – Reinforced Concrete II: Introduction, course outline, Serviceability Introduction, Cracking of Flexural Members, ACI Code Provisions for Crack Control, Deflection Control, ACI Code Provisions for Deflection Control, Design of One-way slabs Types of Slabs, Design of One-Way Slabs, Modeling, Minimum Thickness, Reinforcement Ratio, Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement, Shear, Short columns, Introduction, Behavior of Short, Axially Loaded Compression Members, Lateral Ties and Spirals, Compression plus Bending of Rectangular Columns, Interaction Diagrams, Circular Columns, ACI Code Provisions for Column Design, Distributed Reinforcement, Unsymmetrical Reinforcement, Design Aids, Biaxial Bending, Reciprocal Load Method, Slender columns, Introduction, Braced and Unbraced Frames, Compression plus Bending, ACI Criteria of Neglecting of Slenderness Effects, Moment Magnifier Method (MMM), MMM for Sway Frames, MMM for Non-Sway Frames, RC Walls, Introduction, Design of Walls, Minimum Thickness, Reinforcement Ratio, Shear.

CE 328 – Hydraulic II: Open channels, types, conditions, and systems flow in open channels, geometric elements of open channels, velocity distribution in the section of the channel, velocity measurement in open channels, Factors of velocity distribution, pressure distribution in the channels, the effect of slope channel in the distribution of pressure, the principles of energy and momentum in the open channels, specific energy channels in the variable section, and its applications, and critical flow equations, calculate the critical flow, flow measurement of flow using the principles of critical flow equations, Uniform and steady equations, solving problems of the uniform flow, solving problems of the variable flow gradually and equations.

CE 324 – Construction Management: Introduction to Eng. Management, Elements of CM, Major Steps, Project Management functions, Preparation for submitting of report on FIDIC, GCC, Organizational Structure of Firms, Methods of Project Implementation, Bidding and Contract Award, Bonds, Construction Contracts, Construction Contracts: Contract Elements, Contract types, Contract Administration: General Conditions of Contracts Part I&II, H.W, Submission of report on FIDIC, GCC, Clauses of General Conditions of Contracts, Claims and Disputes, Contract Agreement, Drawings and Specification, Planning and Scheduling, Bar Graph Method, The Normal Progress Curve.

CE 411 – Structural Concrete Design I: Types and characteristics of two-way slab systems, Deflection control of two-way slab systems, ACI effective beam, drop panel dimensions, Direct Design Method, ACI Chapter 13, Limitations of DDM, Design procedure, Moments to beams, columns, Shear to beams, reinforcement in TW slabs, Two-Way Shear, ACI Chapter 11, Punching shear, critical sections, shear force, TW shear strength, TW shear reinforcement, Effects of moment transfer, openings, Equivalent Frame Method, ACI Chapter 13, Introduction, slab-beam stiffness, concept of equivalent column, Moment analysis.

CE 415 – Foundation Engineering I: General introduction, objectives, Ref. Course program, Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations, Terzagi, Meyerhof, eq. for B.C, Hansen equations B.C, Settlement of Shallow Foundations, Structural design of shallow foundations, spread footings, Structural design of shallow foundations, wall footings, Structural design of shallow foundations, mat footings, Earth Retaining Structures,Rankine Theory for lateral pressures, External stability of retaining walls, slid , overturn, bearing capacity, Bearing Capacity of deep foundations, introduction, Bearing capacity of piles, in clayey soils, Bearing capacity of piles, in sandy soils, Group of piles, Pier foundations, Caissons foundation, Site Investigations, Site visiting, General discussions.

CE 413 – Estimation and Specification I: Introduction (General and phases of construction of the project, the engineer & construction, the construction industry, contract types , performance bond, contractor types, Roles of Engineer and Contractors in construction economy). Project Planning and Scheduling (General information, construction activities, methods of scheduling: project network analysis (CPM): 1. the activity-on-arrow (AOA) type commonly called arrow diagramming. the activity –on-node (AON) type commonly called precedence diagramming, The time-grid diagram method, PERT, Gantt (bar-chart) diagram, Resource allocation, Computer program (Microsoft Project Management OR Primavera program)). Estimating of Quantities in Civil Works (General, purposes of estimate, types of estimate, Detailed estimate, Quantity estimate (of construction materials), Road works, Irrigation works). Selection of Construction Equipment and Equipment Cost (Introduction, standard and special types of equipment, owing and operating costs, depreciation and methods of depreciation). Earthmoving Materials and Operations (Introduction, production of earthmoving equipment, soil volume-change characteristics).

CE 417 – Supervised Independent Study and Research: Although the graduation project is a whole course to be completed, it is divided into two semesters as follows:

1st semester: Supervised independent study and research (3 credits)

2nd semester: Graduation project (3 credits)

In evaluating the Supervised independent study and research, the following guidelines will be utilized. The course will be graded on a 0 to 100 point scale. A grade of 60 points is considered passing for purposes of meeting Ishik University graduation requirement.

There are two components to the final grade including: the semester activity, and the oral presentation. Each component will be graded independently of the other components.

Responsibility for all aspects of the graduation project rests solely with the student. The student is responsible for selecting a project, scheduling time to complete the project, completing requirements on time and seeking help when needed.

It is the student’s responsibility to select, contact and confirm an advisor. This person serves as the advisor for the student as he/she completes his/her graduation project.

CE 419 – Water Supply Engineering: Introduction, Relationship of drinking water and wastewater public life, studies of the predictions of the number of souls and uses of water in time, which has designed the project to serve the city through it, The rain and flood, Methods of measurement, factors affecting the stream, wells: Types of wells proceeds, water pipes and channels: types, suffixes, corrosion, The water distribution system: distribution system design, scale valves and nozzles fire, construction and maintenance of pipelines, the socket of the lakes and rivers, pumping stations, storage and storage of higher ground, house connections, Pollutants in water: dissolved substances and suspended, algae, bacteria, bacteria in the colon radiation, calibrated water, Technology of drinking water: filtration, sedimentation basins, coagulation and sintering, the order of filters and devices to control, chlorination and removal of ten, the removal of color, fluorescence, Technology of drinking water: filtration, sedimentation basins, coagulation and sintering, the order of filters and devices to control, chlorination and removal of ten, the removal of color, fluorescence.

CE 421 – Design of Dams: Introduction and definitions, Forces, Stability, Design of Gravity dams, Design of earth dams, Stability of earth dam, Design of spillway, Design of outlet works, Design of protection work.

CE 420 – Structural Steel Structuer Design : Bending and axial stress (beam column), Plate Girder, Fasteners and connections, Welded connections, Truss connections, Ram structure software Applications.

CE 422 – Sewage Systems Engineering: Types of sewage systems (drainage), drainage system and separate the joint, the amount of sewage water, filtration, amount of rain water, the quarterly equation, coefficient of riverbed, time of concentration, the intensity of rainfall. Types of drainage pipe: muddy pipes, concrete, asbestos, iron, steel, hydraulic system, drainage, sedimentation in streams, the establishment of sewage, connectivity, safety and precautions in the creation of systems of exchange, systems accessories: slot screening, retail, current regulations, siphon, ejector, pumping stations, Properties of wastewater: solids, bacteria, oxygen required for the installation of bio-chemical chemical oxygen necessary, check the consistency, equivalent population, methods of wastewater treatment, water exchange: introducing the wastewater into rivers and ponds, dissolved oxygen and oxygen required for the installation of bio-chemical, oxidation ponds. Waste water treatment works.

CE321- Architecture for Civil Engineering: Principles of architecture. Design procedures in different types of buildings. Symbols for different elements; sewerage, mechanical, electrical and water supply system. Taking plan, section and elevation of building.  Building components; walls, roofs, roof coverings, openings in walls and slabs. Project drawing by using ACAD.

CE386- Structural Drawing: principal of civil drawing. Taking Plan, cross-section and longitudinal Details of reinforcement bars in structural elements; footing, column, beam, stair and slab by using ACAD.

CE437- Transportation Engineering: Introduction to transportation systems. Modes of transportation, urban transportation. Highway planning and surveys. Highway financing and economy, principles of highway location. Studies and planning of transportation. Planning of urban roads. Intersections. Road user, vehicle and road characteristics, volume speed, travel time and delay studies. Channelization of traffic. Traffic control devices, intersection design, traffic signs and marking and traffic signals. Parking and terminals. Introduction to airport and railroad engineering.

CE426- Highway Engineering: Historical development of highways. Definitions. Vehicle and road user characteristics. General characteristics of highway traffic. Highway capacity. Highway location. Elements of geometric design of highways. Horizontal and vertical curves. Transition curves. Construction of subgrade, subbase, base courses. Pavement types.

CE 432-Prestressed Concrete: Prestressed concrete simple beams: Stresses in service, at transfer. Loss of prestress. Ultimate limit states: flexure, shear torsion. Deflections (elastic). Continuous beams: primary and secondary moments (elastic analysis). Tendon concordancy, concept of line of pressure. Piles, circular prestressing. Design of detailing.

CE 327 – Groundwater Engineering: The occurrence, sources distribution and movement of groundwater. Aquifer types, differential equations of confined and unconfined aquifers. Well hydraulics. Graphical, analytical, numerical and experimental solution of groundwater budget, groundwater investigations. Wells; well drilling construction and operation (planning and execution). Salt water intrusion. Karstic aquifers. Economical and legal aspects of groundwater development.

CE 433 – Matrix Structural Analysis : Review of matrix algebra and solution of linear equations; energy concepts and principle of virtual work; fundamentals of flexibility and staffness methods; coordinate transformation and matrix assemblage; computer-oriented direct stiffness method and computer code developments; secondary effects; support settlement and temperature change, introduction to the finite element method.

CE 435 – Introduction to Earthquake Resistant Design: Cause of earthquakes, characteristics of earthquake ground motions, earthquake magnitude and response analysis of simple structures. Derivation of elastic response spectra and earthquake design criteria. Free and forced vibration analysis of frame structures. Modal spectra analysis and equivalent design codes, design applications.

CE 430 – Design of Hydraulic Structures: Types of structures. Design of weirs and diversion weir. Farm irrigation structures; ditches, checks, turnouts, drops and chutes. Flumes. Culverts and bridges. Trash racks and screens, sand traps. Design of canalet networks. Design of irrigation appurtenances. Design of dams and reservoirs. Gravity, buttress, arch and earth dams. Design of spillways and energy dissipating basins. Design of service reservoirs.

CE 438 – Foundation Engineering II :Deep foundations. Piles and pile foundations, types of piles, pile foundation design. Types of sheet pile walls. Single wall, double wall and cellular cofferdams. Design and construction methods of cofferdams. Box open, monolithic and pneumatic or compressed air caissons. Underpinning of existing structures.

CE 431 – Airport: Developments in air transportation. Air traffic control and airways. Aircraft characteristics related to airport design. Airport site selection. Airport configuration and airport capacity. Types and standards of airports. Geometric design of landing area. Airport lighting and drainage.

CE 434 – Railway Engineering: Historical development of railways. General definitions. Rolling stock traction: Motive power of the machines of traction. Track geometry: Grades and curves. Location procedure construction. Superstructure: Principles of Planning and Study of technical and economical aspects. Operational principles of railways.

CE 427 – Construction Planning: Economical and juridical basis of construction planning. Methods of planning. Gannt charts, cyclogrammes, networks, probabilistic and deterministic networks (CPM and PERT). Arrow and precedence systems. Resource and cost analysis. Computer applications. Control procedures. Problems encountered during implementation